Three-Dimensional Pore Evolution of Nanoporous Metal Particles for Energy Storage

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A well characterized and predictable aging pattern is necessary for practical energy storage applications of nanoporous particles that facilitate rapid transport of ions or redox species. Here we use STEM tomography with segmentation to show that surface diffusion and grain boundary diffusion are responsible for pore evolution at intermediate and higher temperatures, respectively. This unprecedented three dimensional understanding of pore behavior as a function of temperature suggests routes for optimizing pore stability in future energy storage materials.